Right in the middle of life
universalmonsterstribute:

Boris Karloff in The Black Cat (1934)

universalmonsterstribute:

Boris Karloff in The Black Cat (1934)

weirdvintage:

"Relax.  When the "Libs" call us names like that it really means they think we’re rugged, masculine, virile.  Like these new Hush Puppies."—1971 (via SenseiAlan on Flickr)

weirdvintage:

"Relax.  When the "Libs" call us names like that it really means they think we’re rugged, masculine, virile.  Like these new Hush Puppies."—1971 (via SenseiAlan on Flickr)

fuckyeahtattoos:

Done by Rob at X-reme ink in West Chester, PA.

fuckyeahtattoos:

Done by Rob at X-reme ink in West Chester, PA.

tselentis-arch:

Sorrento, Campania, Italy [+]
via

tselentis-arch:

Sorrento, Campania, Italy [+]

via

peashooter85:

Boudicca, Warrior Queen Part III —- The Empire Strikes Back

In case you missed —- Part I, Part II

As revenge for the humiliation brought upon her, her kingdom, and the violation of her daughters, Queen Boudicca of the Iceni formed a massive army and destroyed the Roman cities of Camulodinum and Londinium.  Tens of thousands of Romans and and Romanized Britons were massacred as a result of Boudicca’s revenge.  For the Romans, the military situation seemed bleak, as there were few soldiers in the area to stop the rebellion.  In addition, the Roman Governor, Seutonius, was away on campaign against the druids in Wales.  The situation was so bad, that the Roman Emperor Nero considering evacuating the island and abandoning Britain altogether.

When word of the Iceni Rebellion reached Seutonius, he left Wales immediately and traveled back to England as fast as possible, mustering as many soldiers as he could along the way.  By the time he met with Boudicca’s army, Seutonius’ forces numbered a mere 10,000.  Estimates from the time number Boudicca’s army at around 230,000 warriors, although historians today accept 100,000 as a more realistic number.

Regardless of numbers, it was clear that the Romans were greatly outnumbered in the upcoming battle.  Today the precise location of the battle is unknown, though historians place it near a Roman road now known as Watling Street, near Wroexeter in Shropshire.  Seutonius chose his ground wisely, positioning his army in a narrow gorge at the end of a wide open field.  The rear of his army was protected by a dense forest while the flanks of his army was protected by the gorge itself.  Thus the Britons were unable to use their superiority of numbers, allowing them to merely surround and annihilate the Romans.  Rather,  Boudicca and her warriors were forced to attack the Romans head on; the way Romans liked to fight.

In terms of weapons and tactics the Romans and Britons couldn’t be more different from each other.  The Britons favored longer and larger weapons such as broadswords, axes, and spears.  Such weapons required sufficient space to swing or thrust.  The Romans, however, preferred close quarter tactics using small wieldy weapons.  A typical Roman Legionary was armed with two javelins (pila), a short sword (gladius), and a dagger (pugio). In addition the Roman Legionary wore heavy army such as chainmail or segmented plate armor, and a helmet.  They key to a Roman soldier’s equipment was a large square shield called a scutum.  The Roman scutum was so large that it covered almost the entirety of the body.  The Romans would do battle in tight formations, with their shields at the front for protection.  When attacked, the Romans would slam into their enemies with their shields, pinning them in a tightly packed battle space where larger weapons such as broadswords, axes, and spears were useless. Then, using their handy and compact short swords, the Romans thrust against their enemies from the sides of their shields with quick stabbing attacks to the abdomen and chest. It was a very aggressive form of warfare, but unlike the combat of their Celtic enemies, it was a highly disciplined and organized form of warfare, with each Roman depending on each other for success and victory.

Boudicca, believing she had trapped the Romans, ordered her warriors to charge in a direct frontal assault.  Tens of thousands of warriors charged across the plain, both men and women, filling the air with furious war cries.  As the Britons closed in on the Romans, the Romans, with cool discipline threw their two javelins.  Under a hail of 20,000 javelins, the Iceni charge was halted in its tracks. Taking advantage of this pause, Seutonius then ordered his men to advance.  Despite being badly outnumbered, it would be Roman discipline that would win the day as the Romans cut through the Britons like a gladius through jello.  At the front was Seutonius himself, urging his soldiers on shouting,

 "Ignore the racket made by these savages. There are more women than men in their ranks. They are not soldiers - they’re not even properly equipped. We’ve beaten them before and when they see our weapons and feel our spirit, they’ll crack. Stick together. Throw the javelins, then push forward: knock them down with your shields and finish them off with your swords. Forget about plunder. Just win and you’ll have everything."

Eventually, Celtic ranks broke and the Iceni army attempted to retreat from the Roman onslaught.  However, before the battle, the families of the Iceni warriors parked their wagons behind the army to watch the fight.  Now this line of wagons provided an obstacle that prevented the Iceni from retreating.  As the Romans continued to advance the battlefield grew so crowded that Iceni trampled each other to death trying to escape.  By the end of the battle, over 80,000 Iceni and other Britons lay dead, wounded, or dying on the battlefield. The Romans suffered only 400 casualties.

After her defeat at the Battle of Watling Street, Queen Boudicca committed suicide.  Being captured by the Romans meant a whole slew of humiliations, including torture, being paraded through the City of Rome in a triumph, and eventually executed by strangulation at the steps of the Roman Forum.  Boudicca was determined she would not be humiliated by the Romans again.  As for the remaining Iceni and Britons, most were scattered across the empire and sold as slaves.

After the Iceni Rebellion, Seutonius would serve as a general under Emperor Otho throughout the Roman civil war known as the “Year of the Five Emperors”.  Otho was defeated and killed, but the fate of Seutonius is unknown.

After the failure of the Iceni Rebellion, the Romans managed to conquer all of what is modern day England and Wales, eventually setting up a frontier at the English/Scottish border.  Under Roman occupation, Most Britons ceased to be Celts in culture and become “Romanized”.  After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, England was conquered and settled by two Germanic tribes called the Angles and the Saxons.  The mixture of Romanized Britons, Angles, and Saxons formed a new people called the Anglo Saxons.

Today, Boudicca is hailed as a national hero in Britain.  In the middle ages she was mostly forgotten, however the rise of another female British ruler in the 19th century, Queen Victoria, would revive her legend among British nationalists and romantic writers.  Constructed in 1905, a statue built in her honor can be found next to Westminster Bridge and the Houses of Parliament.

image

humanoidhistory:

The ruins of Luxor at ancient Thebes, Egypt, 1852, photo by Maxime Du Camp.

(NYPL)

atlasobscura:

FROM DEFENSE TO DESPERATION, WHY THERE IS A HIDDEN WORLD OF UNDERGROUND CITIES
BY CHRIS WHITE / 16 SEP 2014
The history of underground cities is a complex and meandering one, ranging from the Ancient Era in the Middle East and Europe to those sunk during the height of Cold War paranoia, such as the bunker complexes of Cheyenne Mountain or Beijing’s Underground City. There are also more recent underground cities, some of which are simply underground shopping centers or networks of tunneled roads, like those in Vancouver and Tokyo, as well as others which will begin to be built only in the future, due to the constraints of small islands and the opportunities for vast wealth, which are being considered in Singapore and in Hong Kong.
Read more…

atlasobscura:

FROM DEFENSE TO DESPERATION, WHY THERE IS A HIDDEN WORLD OF UNDERGROUND CITIES

BY CHRIS WHITE / 16 SEP 2014
The history of underground cities is a complex and meandering one, ranging from the Ancient Era in the Middle East and Europe to those sunk during the height of Cold War paranoia, such as the bunker complexes of Cheyenne Mountain or Beijing’s Underground City. There are also more recent underground cities, some of which are simply underground shopping centers or networks of tunneled roads, like those in Vancouver and Tokyo, as well as others which will begin to be built only in the future, due to the constraints of small islands and the opportunities for vast wealth, which are being considered in Singapore and in Hong Kong.

mx-ro:

brown-likeme:

nizhonibird:

sikssaapo-p:

THE TRUTH OF NATIVE AMERICANS BEFORE THE GENOCIDE

Gotta put this on blast.
We never needed a white savior.

I hate this country.

What I learned from this video:

  • 100 million Native Americans died at the hands of white colonists
  • Instead of planting crops the colonists spent their days digging random holes in the ground looking for gold. They started starving and dug up Indian corpses to eat. They took Indian prisoners and forced them to teach the colonists how to farm
  • Native Americans had massive cities with tens of thousands of well constructed houses, intricate water canals and large merchant areas.
  • The Native Americans used soaps, deodorants and breath sweeteners while colonists never bathed or even took of their clothes
  • There was a delousing policy with the mantra Nits create Lice; nits being Native American babies, so their goal was to kill every Indian, including babies 
  • In the 1700’s 80% of the Federal Budget went towards eradicating the Native American population so they could take their developed farmland
  • Colonists leaders went town after town killing men women and children under the approval of George Washington
  • "Pursue Indians to extermination" -Thomas Jefferson
  • California governor (1849-1851): “extermination must continue to be waged until the Indian becomes extinct”

The main factor which prevented Native American extinction was the fact they were used for slave labor. The most prized Native Americans were young girls who were said to be valued for labor and lust (that one white dude in your ethnic studies class that says he’s 1/36th Cherokee?)

In modern times children were forced into Indian Boarding Schools whose goal was to “Kill the Indian in them”. It was federal policy. They were beaten if they used their native tongue, they were forced to dress and style their hair like whites 

This country was literally built on terrorism and mass murder. White people are savage terrorists.

Until, this is taught in schools everywhere- “history class” is merely a racism propaganda course.

theniftyfifties:

Carmen Dell’Orefice and Betsy Pickering for Harper’s Bazaar, 1958. Photo by William Helburn.

theniftyfifties:

Carmen Dell’Orefice and Betsy Pickering for Harper’s Bazaar, 1958. Photo by William Helburn.

peashooter85:

Excellent condition engraved and mother of pearl mounted Chicago Firearms Palm Protector pistol, circa 1893.

Sold at Auction; $2,250